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中美新签证政策的意义

尼尔路易斯 布鲁金斯学会大都会政策项目高级政策分析师  2015年01月09日


【摘要】外国留学生能够帮助两国建立经济联系,留学生能够为留学目的国提供很有价值的来自商业、文化和社会方面的知识,这对留学生输出国和输入国而言都是很有好处的。留学生打来了本国的市场,这使得两国间的贸易、外国直接投资以及知识传递都更加便利。为了充分利用这一签证协定,各地的官员需要更好地利用外国留学生的资源以更好地实现经济交流的便利化。



本周早些时候的APEC峰会期间,奥巴马总统宣布将延长中国留学生赴美留学的签证时限至5年。此外,奥巴马和中国国家主席习近平还宣布将延长对方商务旅行签证时限至10年。

中国是美国最大的留学生来源国,2008年到2012年期间大约有28万5千名学生在美国获得学士及以上学历。大部分的中国学生所学专业都是各大企业所大量需求的,例如商科(35%)和工程学(17%)。

目前宣布的签证延长计划将使得中国学生更加方便地完成学业,而无需担心续签签证。此外,这也将能够使他们如果毕业后选择回中国企业工作的话能够更加方便地回到美国从事商业活动。

正如我此前所述,外国留学生能够帮助两国建立经济联系,留学生能够为留学目的国提供很有价值的来自商业、文化和社会方面的知识,这对留学生输出国和输入国而言都是很有好处的。

首先,这些留学生打来了本国的市场,这使得两国间的贸易、外国直接投资以及知识传递都更加便利。大部分的中国留学生都来自中国的大城市,这些城市和美国有着非常紧密的贸易联系:北京(18%)、上海(10%)以及南京(3%)和广州(3%)。

此外,这些留学生在美国的消费也为美国经济注入了活力,也为部分需要专业技术的工作岗位提供了重要的人力资源补充。中国的留学生2008年-2012年在学费方面的花费达到了70亿美金,生活费花费为40亿美金,这些都有效助力了大城市的经济发展。经济效益最大的学校是:普渡大学、伊利诺伊大学香槟分校、密歇根州立大学、南加州大学以及俄亥俄州立大学。

为了充分利用这一签证协定,各地的官员需要更好地利用外国留学生的资源以更好地实现经济交流的便利化。

中美签证协定并没有实现联邦移民体系的改革——这是共和党统领下的国会和总统间必须解决的问题。但是这是中美两国地方建立经济联系的重要一步。


 

 

U.S. and China Building Bridges with New Visa Agreement


Neil G. Ruiz


Earlier this week at the APEC summit, President Obama proposed reducing the annual visa renewal requirement for Chinese foreign students studying in the United States to every five years. Additionally, Obama and Chinese President Xi Jinping announced that visas for tourists and business travelers between China and the United States would extend from one to 10 years for citizens of both nations.

 

China is the largest source of foreign students to the United States, sending nearly 285,000 foreign students on F-1 visas from 2008 to 2012 to study for bachelor’s degrees or higher. Most Chinese students are studying subjects highly sought by companies around the world, such as business (35 percent) and engineering (17 percent).

 

These proposed visa extensions would make it easier for Chinese students to complete their degree programs without having to worrying about renewing their visas. Furthermore, it can allow them to easily travel back to the United States to conduct business if they end up going home to work for a Chinese employer after they graduate.

 

As I wrote earlier this year, foreign students—offering valuable knowledge of the business, cultural, and societal norms of their cities and countries of origin—can help build economic linkages that benefit both sending and destination economies.

 

First, they open up markets in their home cities, which facilitates trade, foreign direct investment and knowledge transfer. Most Chinese foreign students come from large, fast-growing cities in emerging China that have close trade links with the United States: Beijing (18 percent), Shanghai (10 percent), Nanjing (3 percent) and Guangzhou (3 percent).

 

In addition, they inject spending into U.S. metropolitan economies and they help fill demand for jobs requiring specific skills in local labor markets. Chinese foreign students contributed almost $7 billion in tuition dollars and almost $4 billion in living expenses to metropolitan economies during the 2008-2012 period. The economic impact is substantial for top the destination: Purdue University (Lafayette, Ind.), University of Illinois (Champaign-Urbana, Ill.), Michigan State University (Lansing, Mich.), University of Southern California (Los Angeles, Calif.), and Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio).

 

To build upon this visa agreement, local leaders should leverage foreign student connections with their home communities abroad to facilitate and deepen economic exchange.

 

This U.S.-China visa agreement still does not reform our federal immigration system—something that the new Republican-dominated Congress and the president must resolve. But this is an important step in building economic bridges between Chinese cities and U.S. metropolitan areas.


 

 


 
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